Senate on February 25,and the U. President Andrew Jackson was anxious to make it a model of removal.
Estimates based on tribal and military records suggest that approximatelyindigenous people were forced from their homes during that period, which is sometimes known as the removal era, and that some 15, died during the journey west.
The term Trail of Tears invokes the collective suffering those people experienced, although it is most commonly used in reference to the removal experiences of the Southeast Indians generally and the Cherokee nation specifically. The physical trail consisted of several overland routes and one main water route and, by passage of the Omnibus Public Lands Management Act instretched some 5, miles about 8, km across portions of nine states Alabama, Arkansas, GeorgiaIllinois, Kentucky, Missouri, North CarolinaOklahomaand Tennessee.
The roots of forced relocation lay in greed. Although that region was to be protected for the exclusive use of indigenous peoples, large numbers of Euro-American land speculators and settlers soon entered.
For the most part, the British and, later, U. In a gold rush occurred on Cherokee land in Georgia. Vast amounts of wealth were at stake: Land speculators soon demanded that the U. Congress devolve to the states the control of all real property owned by tribes and their members.
That position was supported by Pres. Andrew Jacksonwho was himself an avid speculator. Congress complied by passing the Indian Removal Act Indigenous reactions to the Indian Removal Act varied.
The Southeast Indians were for the most part tightly organized and heavily invested in agriculture. The farms of the most populous tribes—the ChoctawCreek, Chickasaw, Seminole, and Cherokee—were particularly coveted by outsiders because they were located in prime agricultural areas and were very well developed.
This meant that speculators who purchased such properties could immediately turn a profit: Map showing the movement of someNative Americans forcibly relocated to the trans-Mississippi West under the terms of the U. Indian Removal Act The Choctaw were the first polity to finalize negotiations: However, the federal government had no experience in transporting large numbers of civilians, let alone their household effects, farming equipment, and livestock.
Bureaucratic ineptitude and corruption caused many Choctaw to die from exposure, malnutrition, exhaustion, and disease while traveling. The Chickasaw signed an initial removal agreement as early asbut negotiations were not finalized until Skeptical of federal assurances regarding reimbursement for their property, members of the Chickasaw nation sold their landholdings at a profit and financed their own transportation.
As a result, their journey, which took place inhad fewer problems than did those of the other Southeast tribes. The Creek also finalized a removal agreement in However, Euro-American settlers and speculators moved into the planned Creek cessions prematurely, causing conflicts, delays, and fraudulent land sales that delayed the Creek journey until Federal authorities once again proved incompetent and corrupt, and many Creek people died, often from the same preventable causes that had killed Choctaw travelers.
A small group of Seminole leaders negotiated a removal agreement inbut a majority of the tribe protested that the signatories had no authority to represent them. The United States insisted that the agreement should hold, instigating such fierce resistance to removal that the ensuing conflict became known as the Second Seminole War — Although many were eventually captured and removed to the west, a substantial number of Seminole people managed to elude the authorities and remain in Florida.
The Cherokee chose to use legal action to resist removal. Their lawsuits, notably Cherokee Nation v. Georgia and Worcester v. Georgiareached the U. Supreme Court but ultimately provided no relief.
As with the Seminole, a few Cherokee leaders negotiated a removal agreement that was subsequently rejected by the people as a whole. Although several families moved west in the mids, most believed that their property rights would ultimately be respected.Gain a better understanding of one of the saddest chapters in American history at Trail of Tears State Park, where nine of the 13 Cherokee Indian groups being relocated to Oklahoma crossed the Mississippi River during harsh winter conditions in and The park’s visitor center tells the tale of the thousands who died on the forced march, as well as the park’s many.
In the Cherokee were stripped of their rights and forced to move against their will on 'The Trail of Tears' by the governments of Georgia and United States. Trip Planning. The Trail of Tears National Historic Trail passes through the present-day states of Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Tennessee.
Welcome to the Trail of Tears Commemorative Park. This historic park is one of the few documented sites of the actual trail and campsites used during the forced removal of .
Trail of Tears. In Cherokee people were forcibly moved from their homeland and relocated to Indian Territory, now Oklahoma. They resisted their Removal by creating their own newspaper, The Cherokee Phoenix, as a platform for their views.
They sent their educated young men on speaking tours throughout the United States. Welcome to the North Carolina Chapter of the Trail of Tears Association. The Trail of Tears Association (TOTA) is a non-profit organization formed in to support the development and interpretation of the Trail of Tears National Historic Trail.
Designated by Congress in , the National Trail commemorates the forced removal of Cherokee people from their homelands in the southeastern.