The question of whether airplanes are safe

Donn de Grand-Pre Col. Donn de Grand-Pre, U. Also served as Commander of Special Troops for the U. Served as radio operator in World War II.

The question of whether airplanes are safe

Names of victims at memorial Notable passengers killed on the flight included: About 68 of the persons aboard the plane were identified, in some cases from examining jawbones, and at least one individual from a single tooth.

A piece of torn flesh was proven to belong to First Officer Hazen, but Captain Kubeck's remains were never found. Due to the above-mentioned factors, performing toxicology tests on the passenger and crew remains to determine how much exposure they would have had to fumes and smoke from the in-flight fire was not possible.

Investigation[ edit ] At the end of a fifteen-month investigation, the NTSB determined that the fire that downed Flight developed in a cargo compartment below the passenger cabin. Any fire in such an airtight compartment would quickly exhaust all available oxidizers and then burn itself out. As the fire suppression can be accomplished without any intervention by the crew, such holds are not equipped with smoke detectors.

However, the NTSB quickly determined that just before takeoff, over [11] expired chemical oxygen generatorseach slightly larger than the size of a tennis ball can, had been placed in the cargo compartment in five boxes marked COMAT company material by ValuJet's maintenance contractor, SabreTech, in violation of FAA regulations forbidding the transport of hazardous materials in passenger aircraft cargo holds.

Failure to cover the generators' firing pins with the prescribed plastic caps made an accidental activation much more likely.

The investigation revealed that rather than covering them, the cords attached to the firing pins were simply cut or duct-taped around the cans, and Scotch tape was also used to stick the ends down.

SabreTech employees indicated on the cargo manifest that the "oxy canisters", which were loosely packed in the boxes that were each sealed with tape and bubble wrap, were "empty".

The question of whether airplanes are safe

ValuJet workers then loaded the boxes in the cargo hold in the mistaken belief that the devices that they contained were just empty canisters, thus being certified as supposedly "safe" to transport on a passenger aircraft, when in fact they were neither simple oxygen canisters, nor empty.

However, they also produce a great quantity of heat due to the exothermic nature of the chemical reaction involved. Therefore, not only could the heat and generated oxygen start a fire, but the oxygen could also keep the fire burning.

The fire was worsened by the presence of two main aircraft tires one of them mounted on a main wheel and a nose tire and wheel that were also included in the list of materials shipped as COMAT. Investigators determined that when the plane experienced a slight jolt while taxiing, one of the oxygen generators was triggered.

Over time through taxiing and takeoff, the activated generator got hotter and hotter. Soon, the boxes and surrounding packaging ignited, starting a fire. The oxygen from the generators fed the resulting fire in the cargo hold without any need for outside air, defeating the cargo hold's airtight design.

A pop and jolt heard on the cockpit voice recording and correlated with a brief and dramatic spike in the altimeter reading in the flight data recording were attributed to the sudden cabin pressure change caused by one of the wheels in the cargo hold exploding due to the heat.

Smoke detectors in the cargo holds can alert the flight crew of a fire long before the problem becomes apparent in the cabin, and a fire suppression system buys valuable time to land the plane safely.

In Februarythe FAA issued revised standards requiring all Class D cargo holds to be converted by early to Class C or E; these types of holds have additional fire detection and suppression equipment. SabreTech, for improperly packaging and storing hazardous materials ValuJet, for not supervising SabreTech FAA, for not mandating smoke detection and fire suppression systems in cargo holds as recommended in after a similar incident Ina federal grand jury indicted SabreTech for mishandling hazardous materials, failing to train its employees in proper handling of hazardous materials, conspiracyand making false statements.

SabreTech's maintenance supervisor, Daniel Gonzalez, and two mechanics who worked on the plane, Eugene Florence and Mauro Valenzuela, were charged with conspiracy and making false statements.

Gonzalez and Florence were acquitted on all charges, while Valenzuela failed to appear and was indicted in absentia for contempt of court. In so doing, the panel concluded that federal law at the time of the crash could not support a conviction for mishandling hazardous materials and that the government did not prove that SabreTech intended to cause harm.

Just before the federal trial, a Florida grand jury indicted SabreTech on counts of manslaughter and another counts of third-degree murder: SabreTech was the first American aviation company to be criminally prosecuted and convicted for its role in an American airline crash.I wish I would have bought this plane as my first plane, rather than having gone through several others.

This is an excellent beginner plane yet with the SAFE technology turned off, you can do loops, rolls, fly upside down, and other more difficult maneuvers. Attached turbulent flow produces a lot of mixing. Some bits of air move up, down, left, right, faster, and slower relative to the average rearward flow.

Safety is the primary consideration when Boeing engineers design an airplane. All Boeing airplanes undergo rigorous testing and continuous monitoring worldwide. Would airplanes be safer without windows? Update Cancel. that raises the question of whether passengers would be more likely to be awed or terrified by the illusion that there’s nothing between them and a 35,foot drop.

so they pressurize the cabin to enable comfortable and safe breathing.) Without going into too much detail, this.

Brigadier General Warren Abraham Black [] [flying over New York City] We've all been briefed on the mission, so there is nothing more to say. I only have one last order no one else is to have anything to do with the dropping of the bombs.

The question of whether airplanes are safe

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Were the atomic bombs dropped on Japan justified?