Protein synthesis notes

Chromosomes are made up of long strands of tightly wound DNA molecules held together with proteins. A section of the DNA molecule that controls the development of certain characteristics is called a gene. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids. The type and sequence of the amino acids determine the type of protein.

Protein synthesis notes

A typical cell requires thousands of different protein molecules at any given moment. So, the protein requirements of a particular cell has to be satisfied by synthesizing them at site or has to be transferred from where Protein synthesis notes is being synthesized.

This is in accordance with the central dogma of molecular genetics, which postulates that the genetic information flows from nucleic acid to proteins.

RNA and Protein Synthesis. RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) is a polynucleotide, similar to DNA, one of whose roles is protein synthesis. RNA is structurally different from DNA, in that It is usually single stranded. It contains the Nitrogenous Base Uracil instead of Thymine. Its Nucleotides contain Ribose sugar, as opposed to Deoxyribose sugar. The Mechanism of Protein Synthesis in Initiation of Protein Synthesis Larger ribosome: 80S versus 70S. Initiator tRNAi and Met-tRNAi is not formylated; differs from Met-tRNAm. Initiation involves eIF’s, CAP recognition (eIF-4E), and movement to AUG start codon (eIF-2). Chapter 13 Rna And Protein Synthesis; Erin A. • 29 cards. Gene Expression. Involves a series of steps in which the information in the sequence of bases in DNA specifies the makeup of the cells proteins. 2 steps Transcription and Translation.

In Eucaryotic cells, protein synthesis requires the participation of over 70 ribosomal proteins; 20 or more enzymes to activate amino acid precursors, etc. And about additional enzymes for the final processing of different kinds of proteins and 40 or more types of transfer and ribosomal RNAs.

In total, different macromolecules are required to synthesize polypeptides or proteins. Many of these macromolecules are organized into the complex 3D structure of the ribosomes to carry out stepwise trans location of the mRNA as the polypeptide is assembled.

Steps in protein synthesis Transcription Transcription The first step in transcription is the partial unwinding of the DNA molecule so that the portion of DNA that codes for the needed protein can be transcribed.

After transcription, the new RNA strand is released and the two unzipped DNA strands bind together again to form the double helix. Because the DNA template remains unchanged after transcription, it is possible to transcribe another identical molecule of RNA immediately after the first one is complete.

A single gene on a DNA strand can produce enough RNA to make thousands of copies of the same protein in a very short time. Translation In translation, mRNA is sent to the cytoplasm, where it bonds with ribosomes, the sites of protein synthesis.

Ribosomes have three important binding sites: At its tail end, tRNA has an acceptor stem that attaches to a specific amino acid. At its head, tRNA has three nucleotides that make up an anticodon.

An anticodon pairs complementary nitrogenous bases with mRNA.

Protein synthesis notes

Translation begins with the binding of the mRNA chain to the ribosome. The first codon, which is always the start codon methionine, fills the P site and the second codon fills the A site. A peptide bond is formed between the amino acid attached to the tRNA in the A site and the methionine in the P site.

One way to remember this is that the A site brings new amino acids to the growing polypeptide at the P site. The appropriate tRNA carrying the appropriate amino acid pairs bases with this new codon in the A site.

A peptide bond is formed between the two adjacent amino acids held by tRNA molecules, forming the first two links of a chain. The ribosome slides again. The tRNA that was in the P site is let go into the cytoplasm, where it will eventually bind with another amino acid.

Another tRNA comes to bind with the new codon in the A site, and a peptide bond is formed between the new amino acid to the growing peptide chain.Start studying DNA, RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS NOTES CHAPTER 6.

Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS The genetic information stored in DNA is transcribed into mRNA and then transformed into protein. Transcription Sigma factors enable RNA polymerase to bind to promoter DNA.

TRNA polymerase allows the DNA to untwist then unzips, the hydrogen bonds between complementary DNA nucleotides break Free RNA nucleotides form complementary base pairs with one DNA [ ]. For protein synthesis to occur, several essential materials must be present, such as a supply of the 20 amino acids, which comprise most proteins.

Another essential component is a series of enzymes that will function in the process. Protein Synthesis Notes - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free.

•Removal of non-protein coding regions of RNA.

Protein synthesis notes

•Coding regions are then spliced back together. DNA & Protein Synthesis DNA is possibly the single most important molecule in the body. Its double helix has come to represent one of the most important discoveries made in the field of biology.

Protein Synthesis Notes Packet