Torah is the term used for the divine source of wisdom relating to all of creation, so to work towards a definition that relates to the narrower scope of its application as law, or halakhah, begins with the Torah in a more literal sense, namely, the first five books of what the Christian western tradition calls the Pentateuch or first five books of what came to be the Bible. While the status in Biblical and form-based criticism of the ancient compilers of this narrative is beyond the scope of this guide, an oral history of commentary on the Torah arose and became written down as the Mishnah in approximately the year Talmud and Torah also contain non-legal teachings bound up with legend, myth and philosophy, referred to as aggadah.
Oldest known rock about million B. These dates may be as much as ten per cent. That is to say, 60, years ago our ancestors were mammals, probably not unlike lemurs, , years ago amphibians somewhat resembling newts or mud-puppies, and , years ago very primitive fish, combining some of the characters of sharks and lampreys.
The origin of life on our planet was probably over a thousand million years ago, so that the record furnished by fossils only refers to half—perhaps much less than half of the time during which life has existed.
If all the lead in our planet is of radio-active origin, which is rather unlikely, it can hardly be more than eight thousand million years old. Astronomical Eligion in united states public schools essay points to a somewhat smaller age. As the earth goes round, the moon, and to a lesser extent the sun, raise tides in the sea.
The moon thus acts as a brake on the earth, and by so doing is pushed onwards in its orbit, and moves further away. If we calculate backwards instead of forwards we find both the day and the month becoming shorter, until at a sufficiently early date they possessed the same length of about four hours, and the moon was so near to the earth as to be practically touching it.
At present the main retarding action takes place in the Bering Sea. At a geological epoch characterised by many shallow and partly land-locked seas tidal friction must have been greater than now, at other times less.
So we can only say that the moon was born somewhere about four thousand million years ago, but the true figure might be as low as one thousand million, or as high as twenty thousand. The birth of the moon was only one event in a greater catastrophe. Our sun, after a relatively brief period, probably a few thousand million years or less, of youthful exuberance as a giant star radiating energy at thousands of times its present rate, settled down as a respectable dwarf, which it now is, and has been throughout geological time.
For many thousands of millions of years it probably shone as a lonely star unaccompanied by planets. Then it appears to have passed near to another, probably heavier star, which raised tidal waves in it.
The detached crests of these waves, or one of them, formed the planets, and it is fairly clear that the moon broke off from the earth within a few years of its formation. It can be calculated that it has not been going round the sun for more than ten or less than one thousand million years.
Various other lines of evidence converge to a date somewhere between 8,, and 1,, B. If science continues we shall arrive at the exact date in the following way. The star in question must be very far away by now. It is a wise child that knows its own father, and we shall probably not know ours for thousands, perhaps hundreds of thousands of years.
It is possible to penetrate still further into the past and to arrive at a very rough date for the origin of the sun. But any such date depends on some particular hypothesis as to the origin of stellar energy, and there are several such hypotheses, leading to very different dates.
On the other hand a number of independent arguments, based on well-ascertained facts, converge to the same date for the origin of the earth. There are, of course, respectable scientific theories, such as the planetesimal, which lead to different conclusions.
In a popular exposition it has been necessary to be dogmatic. If I have been so it is because I consider it unlikely that any of the figures I have given will be very seriously upset in the future.THE BOISI CENTER PAPERS ON RELIGION IN THE UNITED STATES Separation of Church and State Religious belief and practice remain vibrant in the United States despite—or more likely, because of— the separation of church and state.
This paper provides an account of the history and current controversies over religious disestablishment. Religious Legal Systems in Comparative Law: A Guide to Introductory Research.
By Marylin Johnson Raisch. Marylin Johnson Raisch is the Librarian for International and Foreign Law at the John Wolff International and Comparative Law Library of the Georgetown Law Center.
She received her J.D. from Tulane University School of Law . A Look at the Issues Surrounding Introduction of Religion in Public Schools. 1, words.
2 pages. An Introduction to the History of the First Thanksgiving. words. An Analysis of Religious Equality in United States. 1, words. 4 pages. A History of the Religious Freedom and Economic Opportunities in the United States.
words. The nonprofit Freedom From Religion Foundation works to educate the public on matters relating to nontheism, and to promote the constitutional principle of separation between church and state.
Religious Legal Systems in Comparative Law: A Guide to Introductory Research. By Marylin Johnson Raisch. Marylin Johnson Raisch is the Librarian for International and Foreign Law at the John Wolff International and Comparative Law Library of the Georgetown Law Center.
She received her J.D. from Tulane University School of Law () with work both in civil and common law courses as well as.
Antiquity. Ancient Rome; Ancient Greece; Asia; Babylonia; Medieval Europe; The Muslim World; Byzantine Empire; Ottoman Empire; Crimean Khanate; Topics and practices.