Discussion virgil merely copying homer

Even if every argument that MacDonald offers is valid, there is still a complex of material and arguments the Pauline letters, for example that his thesis has no effect upon at all.

Discussion virgil merely copying homer

Transposition of two letters across an intervening spac e: In such instances, the principle of lectio difficilior is not necessarily going to apply. Below is a case where haplography see the Appendix has caused a word or phrase to drop out, and the demands of meter have led to another word or phrase being inserted into the lacuna.

First the original text: Housman expends much energy in chastising those who are too timid to depart from the manuscript tradition when circumstances call for such action: Lucretius De Rerum Natura VI — Whether nature of herself brings to us an infected sky or something we are not accustomed to experience In addition, since documents were written without word division, instances of mis-segmentation such as this were frequent.

Witness the case of a New Testament papyrus, P46, where the scribe has very carelessly copied an exemplar of high quality: Textual evidence is generally divided into two categories: The textual critic is always having to weigh these two types of evidence, and, as often as not, either consciously or otherwise, will usually tend to emphasize one more than the other when making decisions about variants.

Discussion virgil merely copying homer

Internal evidence can be further subdivided into a transcriptional and b intrinsic types. Intrinsic evidence is what causes the editor to ask which of the available readings is most likely to be what the author wrote, based on considerations of style, vocabulary, thought patterns, and the like.

When we consider the various ways of approaching textual criticism, we find that there exists a wide range of methodologies. At one end of the spectrum, an editor might decide to follow one manuscript or family of manuscripts exclusively, departing from it only in cases of obvious corruption, and otherwise virtually ignoring all other evidence; this is the methodology of the codex optimus.

To a large degree the earliest editors of classical and biblical texts tended to follow one or at most a small number of manuscripts, while ignoring the bulk of the evidence, which often contained better readings. Part of their justification was the fact that access to widely scattered documents was not yet convenient enough to allow full exploitation of all relevant textual evidence; as such access opened up, with improvements in modes of travel, as well as the use of photography, scholars began to use the full range of available documentation.

Wolf himself condemns scholars and editors who depend excessively and slavishly upon one exemplar, as well as those who use variant readings only when an obvious textual problem appears.

In practice editors often tend to tilt more to the external or the internal evidence: In many cases, though, one is able to create a stemma which displays the dependence of later manuscripts on earlier ones in the form of a family tree.

This third manuscript typically has its own distinctive characteristics, i.

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In this way there arises a horizontal relationship between the second and third manuscripts—i. The foregoing assumes, of course, that the scribe actually does change his text to make it conform with the third manuscript; in some cases scribes do make such corrections, in other cases they leave their new copy as it is; they may even do a combination of the two, i.

Example of a stemma codicum, or family tree of manuscripts. The fact of contamination might not at first seem to be a problem; after all if scribes check their work against other manuscripts surely their final product will be of a higher quality.

However, when one is weighing one variant reading against another, such a weighing must take into account the weights of the individual manuscripts as discussed above ; independent manuscripts or branches of the stemma carry more weight than those which show some dependence on each other.

Pasquali [ 65 ] and M. West [ 66 ] have given it more appropriate treatment. Reynolds and Wilson caution us against extremes—particularly that of assuming that contamination is so rampant in textual traditions that the stemmatic method is of no use.

At this point it would be well to step back and think more about the actual benefits of textual criticism, and to look at some examples. Firstly, and most obviously, textual criticism aims to allow us to determine with a more or less reasonable degree of certainty what precisely the author wrote.

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Details regarding economic situations or military events could even be obscured by confusion between letters, since letters of the alphabet were employed to represent numerals in both Greek and Latin.

An example of this latter type of confusion occurs in Thucydides III Without being certain as to which reading is genuine, one can easily see how one might have arisen from the other: Thus we can say that this particular error most likely originated sometime between about the third and eighth centuries CE, before uncial manuscripts were superseded by minuscules.

However my claim will be that only some of the surviving variant readings in our text of Homer can be explained by invoking this sort of scribal error, and that in fact a significant number cannot be explained in this way; rather, the variants in question contain divergences so substantial and so early [ 73 ] that they lead one to conclude that there was no archetype in the usual sense.

In 69—70 the soul, chest, and heart are being described; in 70A—B the following four variant readings occur, along with a scholarly conjecture: This could explain a conscious change of the text.

Is Virgil merely copying Homer?Discuss Homer and Virgil are both astounding writers of epic leslutinsduphoenix.com with his Iliad and Virgil with his Aeneid. However when you look below the surface the Aeneid and the Iliad are startlingly similar, in particular that of Aeneid Book 5 and Iliad book 23 which both focus on the funeral games. Textual criticism, the technique of restoring texts as nearly as possible to their original form. Texts in this connection are defined as writings other than formal documents, inscribed or printed on paper, parchment, papyrus, or similar materials. Who was copying manuscripts in the Middle Ages – whence the vast bulk of our manuscripts derive? Monks in Christian monasteries. I might change it to fit my theology. But if I’m copying Homer, because it’s fiction I’m not motivated to change it at all. 1. Log in to Reply. with the writer merely acting as amanuensis–does.

Or, treating it as an unconscious error, it could be explained as a case of haplography accidentally writing one letter for two —helped by the fact that the resultant word was indeed familiar.

Alternatively, the reading could be due to the fact that in early uncial writing geminate consonants were as a rule written once only.

However, when all is said and done, this reading gives an untranslatable clause. Renehan points out that Galen quotes this passage with this reading three times, indicating that the textual corruption is very early.leslutinsduphoenix.com Words Beginning With E / Words Starting with E Words whose second letter is E.

E The fifth letter of the English alphabet.. E E is the third tone of the model diatonic scale.E/ (E flat) is a tone which is intermediate between D and E.

The materials of the investigation

This webpage is for Dr. Wheeler's literature students, and it offers introductory survey information concerning the literature of classical China, classical Rome, classical Greece, the Bible as Literature, medieval literature, Renaissance literature, and genre studies.

This thread will focus on Virgil's larger motivations, purposes, and style as a writer in relation to Homer. We talked in class about how Virgil was well-versed in the Homeric texts, which had become common knowledge by his time.

The Death of the Moth. Moths that fly by day are not properly to be called moths; they do not excite that pleasant sense of dark autumn nights and ivy-blossom which the commonest yellow-underwing asleep in the shadow of the curtain never fails to rouse in us. "The Homeric Epics and the Gospel of Mark": A Critical Examination where the many quotations from Homer and the entire Homeric structure are far more than merely an artistic decoration, in that they create a backcloth for Croesus' and Cyrus' speeches by associating them in the readers' mind with Agamemnon and Achilles.

and unless we. The foremost influence on Virgil was Homer, the Greek poet who composed the Iliad and the leslutinsduphoenix.com Virgil's time, Homer was acknowledged as the greatest of all poets, and Virgil studied Homeric epic poetry in order to develop his own artistic techniques.

The Preface to the Aeneis of Virgil () by Joseph Trapp - Free Ebook