You can help by adding to it. February The gold standard formed the financial basis of the international economy from to Capitalism was carried across the world by broader processes of globalization and by the beginning of the nineteenth century a series of loosely connected market systems had come together as a relatively integrated global system, in turn intensifying processes of economic and other globalization.
Dimitri Vanoverbeke, Narufumi Kadomatsu: The Case of Japan Narufumi Kadomatsu: Obligations to inform in private law and their limits], Dr. Eckart Buerena Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law, details the approach of the German Federal Court, critically examining the case law not only from a doctrinal perspective but also scrutinizing it under both a law-and-economics and a comparative lens.
Whether by talking on their mobile phones while travelling abroad, through misconfigured routers, or because of devices automatically connecting to the Internet, customers sometimes incur costs that are completely disproportionate to the usual costs in their contracts.
In terms of regulation, the European Union has taken various measures to enhance price transparency, strengthen competition, contain costs and regulate prices for mobile phone and internet usage through the Universal Service Directive and the Roaming Regulation. Over time, several reforms have tightened these measures.
German lawmakers first acted against the abuse of premium rate numbers through the Telecommunications Act.
Later they introduced the protective instruments of the Roaming Regulation also for domestic situations of usage. The monograph points out important gaps that remain. Eckart Bueren examines this approach from three methodological angles: Based on his findings, Bueren points to alternative solutions to cope with bill shock in German private law, especially the legislation on terms and conditions and Section of the German Civil Code usury; usurious business practices.
He argues that, as far as private law is concerned, these approaches can manage the problems in a more suitable and doctrinally harmonious way where regulation does not prevent bill shocks.
Obligations to inform in private law and their limits. Doctrinal, comparative and economic analysis.
This principle has been adopted in the recent reform of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, and it has been introduced in Russian contract law. Eugenia Kurzynsky-Singer examines how Russian case law has dealt with this legal transplant.
The conceptual foundations of Russian private law, which numbers among the continental legal systems, are fundamentally different from the foundations of common law jurisdictions. As a general rule, this significantly complicates the reception of Anglo-American legal institutions.
Nevertheless, it would appear that Russian case law, at least to a certain degree, follows a logic that resembles the English doctrine of estoppel.
As described by Eugenia Kurzynsky-Singer, the Russian courts are developing a value-oriented understanding of estoppel and are applying the principle even beyond the relevant provisions of the civil code.
The unit focuses on those countries that have emerged from the former realm of the Soviet Union, addressing not only the transformation of their civil law regimes but also fostering a legal dialogue with them.Type or paste a DOI name into the text box. Click Go. Your browser will take you to a Web page (URL) associated with that DOI name.
Send questions or comments to doi. This article is a reply by the author to a response to his article about "The Quality Time Program". Many of the responses saw the program, which involved teachers 'buddying' with students experiencing behavioural problems, as yet another imposition on teachers' time.
Institute of Social Studies (ISS), The Netherlands ↑. The ISS, based in the Hague, is a postgraduate institution, offering a 15 months MA program in developing . Known as market justice, this approach derives from principles of individualism, self-interest, personal effort, and voluntary behavior.
1 The contrasting approach, social justice, allocates goods and services according to the individual's needs. Social justice encompasses economic justice. Social justice is the virtue which guides us in creating those organized human interactions we call institutions.
In turn, social institutions, when justly organized, provide us with access to what is good for the person, both individually and . A juvenile offender is judged "delinquent" rather than "guilty." Because of the individualized nature of the juvenile justice system, sentencing varies and may cover a wide range of community.