Key terms There are two types of control, namely budgetary and financial. This chapter concentrates on budgetary control only. This is because financial control was covered in detail in chapters one and two. Chapter objectives This chapter is intended to provide:
Preamble Budgets are accounting functions, used for strategic planning and metric driven performance monitoring, through comparison of actual achievements against statement of expectations, during a future period.
Budgets are forward looking, provide direction, enable rational planning, resource allocation, performance monitoring and executive accountability; binding organizational units for integrated operations. The impact of budgetary control on organizations is multi dimensional.
Control through operating and financial budgets, are found to catalyse investment efficiency Poonpool et al Budgetary control influences firm performance Muhammad et aland effectiveness of using budgetary controls vary across functions Peter Managers with high need for achievement tend to create less of slack Vincent and Irdam Budgetary control can be exercised across levels, horizontal units and for varying periods; rolled up or drilled down.
Budgets help control performance through continuous monitoring, provide visibility into variations, early warning signals and prompting Root Cause Analysis. Participatory budgeting stimulates ownership and accountability, helps track progress and timely corrective action.
Being forward looking, budgets have inbuilt uncertainty, and are revised based on new information from unfolding events. A well knit holistic budget integrates organizational units through a scheme.
Budgets reflect organizational strategy. Budgeting cycle comprises planning budgetingexecution data collection and monitoring and feedback variance analysis for timely intervention.
Budgeting touches resources finance, manpower…costs materials, manpower…activities sales…. Managers should use outcomes from accounting analysis with introspection Miller While accounting standards evolved over time, from superfluous inventions of accounting professionals gaining political support, managerial decision criteria have survived aging over time Miller Accounting practices are not practical from a management perspective but prescriptive, compelling counter-productive managerial actions; using outdated practices and standard costs when efficient technology could replace expensive labour Miller Overzealous accounting driven actions, tend to seek short term goals sacrificing long term gains Miller Are we doing what is appropriate for business?
ABC glorifies the activity as sacrosanct, shifting focus from running the business to employing ABC trackers Ringrose Accounting functions are not the reason for businesses to exist, it is the other way.
It is not clear if ABC examines reengineering the activity itself or do away with it; in which case, ABC is superfluous. Costing and accounting systems shall support the business strategy, and not be a super-set to it.
Businesses should take the credit and debit for business outcomes, and not lose control to accounting or shift blame to it 3. Misused Tool Accounting is an internal monitoring and governance tool, and its application should be limited to that Burchell et alMiller and Rose Relevant economic considerations for managerial decisions are marginal costs and not historical costs; driving ABC and absorption costs to distort business decisions EdwardsCoase Some of the scientific management practices drew from accounting practices to back their theory Taylor This is to be seen as an aberration in the present context.
Managers need to look at budgeting as a tool to be used as and when found appropriate, than be enslaved to it. It is not uncommon to find transactional manipulations across levels in organizations, by employees; eager to be seen as compliant and performing.
Manipulations include convenient classification of activities, costs, revenues and anything one can imagine, exploiting grey areas and discretionary powers; or even perceived likely-hood of escaping visibility. Budget based control mechanisms should be seen as tools for internal control; not for evaluating the business.
Budgets should be used to blow the whistle to delve deep for Root Cause Analysis and no more.The use of budgetary control in performance management has of late taken Words: — Pages: 9 “Budgetary Control Is Part Of Overall Organisation Control And Is Concerned Primarily With The Control overall organisation control and is concerned primarily with the control of performance.
Budgetary control is defined by the Institute of Cost and Management Accountants (CIMA) as: "The establishment of budgets relating the responsibilities of executives to the requirements of a policy, and the continuous comparison of actual with budgeted results, either to secure by individual action the objective of that policy, or to provide a basis for its revision".
Accounting management, especially in the area of budgetary control has a great impact on influencing performance (Otley & Pollanen, ). Therefore, the use of budgetary control in performance management is an integral control mechanism, and it has gained importance in the contemporary business environment.
Dimensions of Budgetary Control. Budgetary control is part of overall organization control and is concerned primarily with the control of leslutinsduphoenix.com use of budgetary control in performance management has of late taken on greater importance especially as a more integrative control mechanism for the organisation.
Budgetary control is described as the process of planning, controlling, coordinating and motivation through money values and departments within an organization. (Ryan, ) Budgetary control is a major feature of management control system in most organisations.
Budgetary control is part of overall organisation control and is concerned primarily with the control of performance. The use of budgetary control in performance management has of late taken on greater importance especially as a more integrative control mechanism for the organisation.