Biography of Raphael Early life and work Raphael Sanzio, usually known by his first name alone in Italian Raffaello April 6 or March 28, — April 6, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance, celebrated for the perfection and grace of his paintings and drawings. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.
Urbino Giovanni SantiRaphael's father; Christ supported by two angels, c.
The reputation of the court had been established by Federico da Montefeltroa highly successful condottiere who had been created Duke of Urbino by the Pope — Urbino formed part of the Papal States — and who died the year before Raphael was born.
The emphasis of Federico's court was rather more literary than artistic, but Giovanni Santi was a poet of sorts as well as a painter, and had written a rhymed chronicle of the life of Federico, and both wrote the texts and produced the decor for masque -like court entertainments.
His poem to Federico shows him as keen to show awareness of the most advanced North Italian painters, and Early Netherlandish artists as well.
In the very small court of Urbino he was probably more integrated into the central circle of the ruling family than most court painters. Under them, the court continued as a centre for literary culture. Growing up in the circle of this small court gave Raphael the excellent manners and social skills stressed by Vasari.
Castiglione moved to Urbino inwhen Raphael was no longer based there but frequently visited, and they became good friends. He became close to other regular visitors to the court: Pietro Bibbiena and Pietro Bemboboth later cardinalswere already becoming well known as writers, and would be in Rome during Raphael's period there.
Raphael mixed easily in the highest circles throughout his life, one of the factors that tended to give a misleading impression of effortlessness to his career.
He did not receive a full humanistic education however; it is unclear how easily he read Latin. Raphael was thus orphaned at eleven; his formal guardian became his only paternal uncle Bartolomeo, a priest, who subsequently engaged in litigation with his stepmother.
He probably continued to live with his stepmother when not staying as an apprentice with a master. He had already shown talent, according to Vasari, who says that Raphael had been "a great help to his father". In Urbino, he came into contact with the works of Paolo Uccellopreviously the court painter d.
The evidence of an apprenticeship comes only from Vasari and another source,  and has been disputed—eight was very early for an apprenticeship to begin.
An alternative theory is that he received at least some training from Timoteo Vitiwho acted as court painter in Urbino from Apart from stylistic closeness, their techniques are very similar as well, for example having paint applied thickly, using an oil varnish medium, in shadows and darker garments, but very thinly on flesh areas.
An excess of resin in the varnish often causes cracking of areas of paint in the works of both masters. It was commissioned in and finished in ; now only some cut sections and a preparatory drawing remain. He very probably also visited Florence in this period. These are large works, some in frescowhere Raphael confidently marshals his compositions in the somewhat static style of Perugino.
He also painted many small and exquisite cabinet paintings in these years, probably mostly for the connoisseurs in the Urbino court, like the Three Graces and St.
Michaeland he began to paint Madonnas and portraits. Although there is traditional reference to a "Florentine period" of about —8, he was possibly never a continuous resident there. There is a letter of recommendation of Raphael, dated Octoberfrom the mother of the next Duke of Urbino to the Gonfaloniere of Florence: And because his father was most worthy and I was very attached to him, and the son is a sensible and well-mannered young man, on both accounts, I bear him great love Frescos in Perugia of about show a new monumental quality in the figures which may represent the influence of Fra Bartolomeowho Vasari says was a friend of Raphael.
But the most striking influence in the work of these years is Leonardo da Vinciwho returned to the city from to Raphael's figures begin to take more dynamic and complex positions, and though as yet his painted subjects are still mostly tranquil, he made drawn studies of fighting nude men, one of the obsessions of the period in Florence.
Another drawing is a portrait of a young woman that uses the three-quarter length pyramidal composition of the just-completed Mona Lisabut still looks completely Raphaelesque. Another of Leonardo's compositional inventions, the pyramidal Holy Family, was repeated in a series of works that remain among his most famous easel paintings.
There is a drawing by Raphael in the Royal Collection of Leonardo's lost Leda and the Swanfrom which he adapted the contrapposto pose of his own Saint Catherine of Alexandria.
But he keeps the soft clear light of Perugino in his paintings. Michelangelo already disliked Leonardo, and in Rome came to dislike Raphael even more, attributing conspiracies against him to the younger man. His Deposition of Christ draws on classical sarcophagi to spread the figures across the front of the picture space in a complex and not wholly successful arrangement.
Though highly regarded at the time, and much later forcibly removed from Perugia by the Borgheseit stands rather alone in Raphael's work. His classicism would later take a less literal direction. Peter's Basilicawho came from just outside Urbino and was distantly related to Raphael.More changes in style and technique can be observed in Raphael's drawings upon his arrival in Rome.
There is the gradual abandonment of the metal point in favor of chalk, and his use of the new medium of red chalk especially for the studies for the female nudes in The Triumph of Galatea.
Raffaello Sanzio, or Raphael, was born on April 6, in the town of Urbino, leslutinsduphoenix.com was a painter and architect during the High Renaissance period. Compared to other Masters of the time, Raphael remained productive, running a workshop that included 50 students and assistants.
Raphael, Italian in full Raffaello Sanzio or Raffaello Santi, (born April 6, , Urbino, Duchy of Urbino [Italy]—died April 6, , Rome, Papal States [Italy]), master painter and architect of the Italian High Renaissance.
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino Vasari, Life of Raphael from the Lives of the Artists, edition used: Artists of the Renaissance selected & ed Malcolm Bull, Penguin (page nos from BCA edn, ) Wölfflin, Heinrich; Classic Art; An Introduction to the Renaissance, in English ( edition), Phaidon, New leslutinsduphoenix.come work: list.
Raphael was born Raffael Sanzio in the town of Urbino in the year , April 6. No doubt that his interest in painting began quite early; his father was a painter. During the eleven years, which Raphael had with his father, he had the opportunity to learn the basics of painting.
Vasari, Life of Raphael from the Lives of the Artists, edition used: Artists of the Renaissance selected & ed Malcolm Bull, Penguin (page nos from BCA edn, ) Wölfflin, Heinrich ; Classic Art; An Introduction to the Renaissance, in English ( edition), Phaidon, New York.