Share via Print The ruins of the ancient city of Harappa, now in Pakistan, one of the major centers of a civilization that disappeared probably because of climatic upheaval. Now paleoclimatologists propose that a similar fate was followed by the enigmatic Indus Valley Civilization, at about the same time.
Share via Print The ruins of the ancient city of Harappa, now in Pakistan, one of the major centers of a civilization that disappeared probably because of climatic upheaval.
Now paleoclimatologists propose that a similar fate was followed by the enigmatic Indus Valley Civilization, at about the same time. Based on isotope data from the sediment of an ancient lake, the researchers suggest that the monsoon cycle, which is vital to the livelihood of all of South Asia, essentially stopped there for as long as two centuries.
The Indus Valley, in present Pakistan and northwest India, was home to a civilization also known as the Harappan Civilization. It was characterized by large, well-planned cities with advanced municipal sanitation systems and a script that has never been deciphered.
But the Harappans seemed to slowly lose their urban cohesion, and their cities were gradually abandoned. The link between this gradual decline and climate has been tenuous because of a dearth of climate records from the region.
So Yama Dixit, a paleoclimatologist at the University of Cambridge, UK, and her colleagues examined sediments from Kotla Dahar, an ancient lake near the northeastern edge of the Indus Valley area in Haryana, India, that still seasonally floods.
The team assigned ages to sediment layers using radiocarbon dating of organic matter. In various layers, they collected the preserved shells of tiny lake snails Melanoides tuberculatawhich are made of a form of calcium carbonate CaCO3 called aragonite.
The team also looked at the oxygen in the argonite molecules, counting the ratio of the rare oxygen isotope to the more prevalent oxygen Two-hundred-year hiatus Kotla Dahar is a closed basin, filled only by rain and runoff and without outlets.
Thus precipitation and evaporation alone determine its water volume. During drought, oxygen, which is lighter than oxygen, evaporates faster, so that the remaining water in the lake and, consequently, the snails' shells, become enriched with oxygen The team's reconstruction showed a spike in the relative amount of oxygen between 4, and 4, years ago.
This suggests that precipitation dramatically decreased during that time. Moreover, their data suggests that the regular summer monsoons stopped for some years. Anil Gupta, the director of the Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology in Dehradun, India, says that the work fills a gap in the geographic record of ancient droughts.
But large questions remain.
They found that in that area, drought began as many as 4, years ago. This article is reproduced with permission from the magazine Nature. The article was first published on March 3, A monstrous covenant between the PKK and the organization of the apostate Arameans who identify themselves as “Assyrians”, namely: The Assyrian Democratic Organisation.
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The Epic of Gilgamesh, the greatest literary work of Ancient Mesopotamia, talks of a flute made of carnelian, a semi-precious leslutinsduphoenix.com passage was recently identified on cuneiform tablets written in Akkadian, an ancient semitic language.
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until the conquest of Alexander the Great in leslutinsduphoenix.com a civilization based on irrigation, it is the quintessential example of a hydraulic leslutinsduphoenix.com was one of the oldest, . In the oral and written traditions of many cultures—ancient Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, North and South America, Egypt, China and Central and Eastern Europe—there are stories of “magicians” and “wizards” and “lords of great knowledge and skill”.